The evidence base related to the contribution of the school setting to the improvement of children’s health and well-being is strong. There are still many epistemological and methodological issues in relationship to evaluation of health promotion effectiveness. Therefore, there is a need to shift from the over focus on ‘one size fits all’ evidence-based fidelity, to a more flexible perspective of anchoring and tailoring interventions to the different contexts. Schools include health and wellbeing in their planning and review processes, teaching strategies, curriculum and assessment activities. . Healthy School Award schemes, which provide structured frameworks, health-related targets and external support, represent one way of helping schools become health promoting, a factor identified in the UK Health of the Nation Government White Paper (1992) as facilitating the achievements of stated targets for prevention. The papers include original studies and conceptual analyses from different parts of the world representing the topical issues related to health promoting school globally. making healthy decisions and taking control over life's circumstances. The underlying concept of health is more than the traditional WHO definition: ‘a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. The health status of the learners, educators, community and the environment is enhanced. Effective Health Promoting Schools (HPS) make a major contribution to schools achieving their educational and social goals. creating conditions that are conducive to health (through policies, services, physical/social conditions) building capacities for peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, equity, social justice and sustainable development. During the school year 2012–2013, 34 000 schools were identified as health promoting schools in the European region (SHE, 2013). Their focus was to find out how health promotion is practiced in three schools that have agreed to implement the health promoting school (HPS) concept, appointed by regional service providers (e.g. The factors preventing and facilitating implementation of health promoting school practices were explored by Mcisaac and colleagues. Also in the United States and Canada the ‘Comprehensive School Health Program’ and more recently the ‘Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child’ model are used more frequently. Published by Oxford University Press. The whole school approach used in the SHE network rests on five core values (equity, sustainability, inclusion, empowerment and action competence, democracy) and five pillars (whole school approach to health, participation, school quality, evidence base, involvement of schools and communities). Policy and leadership, partnerships, and competence were regarded as essential organizational and collaboration-related factors, whereas student participation, working climate and social network were factors that emphasized the school’s possibilities as being an arena for health promotion. school health promotion in December 1994, which had been organized by WHO in collaboration with the National Centre for Health Promotion at the University of Sydney and which had a focus on Pacific island countries. However, they found no evidence of effectiveness on fat intake, alcohol and drug use, mental health, violence, and bullying others (Langford et al., 2014). It is an advocacy document for the health and education sectors to undertake school health promotion activities based on the evidence of effectiveness. This approach also takes into account the health and well-being of those working in the school, teachers and non-teaching staff. It uses a more open concept of health, in which children and young people should be involved in defining their own health. Nowadays, the political context is favourable since there is an increasing awareness of the close relationship between health, physical and cognitive development, school participation and educational achievement which led to a whole of government and intersectoral policies. The health promoting school aims at achieving healthy lifestyles for the total school population by developing supportive environments conducive to the promotion of health. Although mental health is a fundamental component of health, recognition of mental disorders and awareness about its importance is limited. Its development was inspired by the Ottawa Charter presented at the first international conference on health promotion in 1986, which helped changing the context for health promotion significantly. A health promoting school is one that constantly strengthens its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working. Children and adolescents need to be encouraged for physical activity, either supervised, or non-supervised, since nowadays many factors are competing for their time. Strives to improve the health of school personnel, families and community members as well as pupils; and works with community leaders to help them understand how the community contributes to, or undermines, health and education. The system thinking theme continues in a study from Tooher and colleagues in Australia from the point of view of integration and collaboration in various school-based health programmes and the barriers and enablers to successful intersectoral collaboration between education. social climate), and improved interactions and social relationships in school among peers and between students and adults. In addition to these weaknesses in the assessment of the effectiveness of health promotion programmes in schools, the issues of scaling up and transferability remain rarely examined. Search for other works by this author on: Equity, education and health: learning from practice: case studies of practice presented during the 4th European confernence on health promoting schools Odense, Denmark 7-9 October 2013, The WHO health promoting school framework for improving the health and well‐being of students and their academic achievement, An examination of Health Promoting Schools in Ireland, Improving Health and Social Cohesion through Education, Schools for Health in Europe network SHE factsheet 2: School health promotion: evidence for effective action, Schools for Health in Europe network SHE factsheet 1:State of the art: health promoting schools in Europe, Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention, The impact of health and health behaviours on educational outcomes in high-income countries: a review of the evidence, Interventions for preventing obesity in children, © The Author 2017. Coelho and colleagues investigated in controlled pre-post design the efficacy of a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on social-emotional competencies of Portuguese middle school students’ characteristics in two distinct cohorts. While countries may differ in nomenclature and structure to varying degrees, similar underpinning principles apply to all and the definition of a Health Promoting School (HPS) provided by the World Health Organisation (WHO 2015) encapsulates these well: ‘a school that is constantly strengthening its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working’. 44. They found that there were significant intervention gains in three (of five) social–emotional competencies: increases in social awareness and self-control and decreases in the levels of social anxiety in the first cohort. health-promoting schools – A framework for action in 1996, and updated these ... Action competencies for healthy living 6. These results truly encourage the inclusion of students, regardless of their age, in all kinds of health promoting activities. Health promoting schools support schools in achieving their educational and social goals. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. In the existing literature, tools and frameworks developed for programme evaluation are often grounded in a linear programme fidelity perspective. The political organisation, priorities, degree of decentralisation, organisation and goals of education systems differ from one country to another. School health education programs can reduce health risk behaviors such as tobacco use, poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, drug and alcohol use, as well as actions that increase stress, and risk of injury, and violence. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Results like this highlight the importance of both school-based and out-of-school physical activity, and as the authors bring out, should have implications all the way up to the government policy level. (World Health Organisation, 1993). Especially the children’s responsibility, innovativeness, and sense of achievements were respected, and together with adults, they formed a collaborative team. Struthers and colleagues report the development process and the assessment of psychometric properties of the Health Promoting Schools Monitoring Questionnaire in South African high schools. They highlight the current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to present the pathways between daily school recess and health trajectories. The most important actions for school administrators to take before reopening in-person services and facilities are planning and preparing.To best prepare, schools should expect that students, teachers, or staff may contract symptoms consistent with COVID-19, and schools must know what to do when this … The validity of the questionnaire was assessed by experts working in the field of health promoting schools, and the reliability by test-retest method by student sample. However, the authors conclude that the implementation was resource and labour intensive and relatively expensive. Research to improve school health programmes: Evaluation research and expert opinion is analyzed and consolidated to describe the nature and effectiveness of school health programmes. Health promotion in a school setting could be defined as any activity undertaken to improve and/or protect the health of all school users. Therefore, teachers are expected to be honest and act with integrity. It is important that schools promote healthy eating habits through programs and guidelines 1. When you are a role model and authority figure for children, how you carry yourself matters. * It is a broader concept than health education and it includes provision and activities relating to: healthy school policies, the schools physical and social environment, The alliance includes Education International, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Education Development Center, UNESCO, UNAIDS and GIZ. Currently child health policies in this region focus on prevention of childhood killer diseases whereas there is a lack of child mental health services. • To facilitate action for health by building health knowledge and skills in the cognitive, social and behavioural domains – The school is a setting where health issues and perspectives are used to complement and enrich education priorities e.g. (, Langford R., Bonell C.P., Jones H.E., Pouliou T., Murphy S.M., Waters E. et al. The close relationship between these fields is a product of the interaction of school management and educational practices. The Initiative is designed to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools. With several measurements, this Chilean study revealed that a majority of the children participated in scheduled exercise under two hours per week. School managers, persons who have the main administrative responsibility for the schools in their district, are a relatively rarely studied group related to school health promotion; though they have a great influence on priority areas performed at schools. In a Canadian-based study, school principals, teachers and parents were interviewed and based on the results, identified the barriers as structural and systemic, such as large class sizes or financial challenges. H. Turunen, M. Sormunen, D. Jourdan, J. von Seelen, G. Buijs, Health Promoting Schools—a complex approach and a major means to health improvement, Health Promotion International, Volume 32, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages 177–184, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dax001, Development of health promoting schools in the European region. Nearly two in three countries (62%) have a formal health promoting school policy, in most cases as part of their education policies, followed by inclusion in their public health policies, or a combination of education and health policies (SHE, 2013). The results indicated that the intervention improved the social and emotional competencies of middle school students, supporting the cross-cultural generalization of social–emotional learning programs’ efficacy. The Schools for Health in Europe network (SHE network, www.schools-for-health.eu) was initiated by the World Health Organization for the European region (WHO EURO) in 1992, together with the Council of Europe and the European Commission. The positive effects were stably effective in the second cohort, except for social anxiety. Central in this programme was the component of training and using student peers to make an everyday impact on other students. Creating networks and alliances for the development of health-promoting schools: regional networks for the development of Health-Promoting Schools have been initiated in Europe, Western Pacific and Latin America. The results showed that the focus is on individual behaviour and schools as intervention settings rather than a site for creating change implementing health promotion from the critical health education viewpoint. Conversely, however, implementation is argued as being a complex process, which defies such linear one-dimensional thinking. However, it seems that there were features related to critical health education containing a holistic understanding of health, the need for critical and plural participation and the importance of community. In addition, several methodological papers are presented including new instrument development, an innovative data collection method as well as analyses of complex system science in relation to HPS. Creating conditions that are conducive to health (through policies, services, physical/social conditions). . A diversity that often makes comparisons difficult. It also poses a question how the surrounding community could support schools more in their health promoting practices. The SHE network has developed into an important platform for school health promotion in the European region. Depending on individual countries, health is not taken into account in educational policies in the same way. WHO's Global School Health Initiative, launched in 1995, seeks to mobilize and strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national, regional and global levels. Increasing understanding and overcoming stigma through strategic communications and social mobilization are crucial steps … Results from programme implementation remain unclear and challenging to evaluate. In the Health Promoting School, learning experiences from classroom health education lessons are reinforced by policies and practices in the school environment and parent and community sphere. It therefore focuses on promoting health and well-being through increased health literacy, on lifestyles and living conditions, and on the absence of diseases. Thus, the intervention programme and its content remain the same, however, more context-specific thinking is applied to the implementation process, and the types of achievements that might be expected from it (Darlington, 2016). Nevertheless, the authors of the Cochrane review on ‘Assessment of the HPS framework on students’ health and well-being and their performance at school’ found that interventions using the HPS approach were able to reduce students’ body mass index (BMI), increase physical activity and fitness levels, improve fruit and vegetable consumption, decrease cigarette use, and reduce reports of being bullied. The health promoting school approach has been adapted in many European countries, Australia and New Zealand. 4 HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOLS: EPERIENCES FROM THE WESTERN PACIFIC REGION 1. A whole school approach to health promotion was not implemented systematically into schools’ policies. For research, the first challenge pertains to transferability, because with the existence of such variables and with limited options to control for them, streamlined outcomes are in reality difficult to predict. We publish a series of guidance on school attendance. Capacity-building activities for teachers and other staff, and parental involvement were also important. Examples of actions that a school can take 6 Accountability 7 Enquiries 8 2 . Leadership and management practices • Secure political support and leadership from the health … All rights reserved. Support, care, and trust, among others, were categorized as individual factors. Following a detailed description of an intervention, as in this article, the reader, whether being professional in the school, or researcher in the field, gets a possibility to follow the steps and possibly avoid the pitfalls in planning phase. Researchers are organized in the SHE research group with over 85 researchers from 25 countries, each with an interest and commitment in research in school health promotion. Although definitions will vary, depending on need and circumstance, a Health-Promoting School can be characterised as a school constantly strengthening its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working. CORRECT (P. 86): C. The first action the nurse should take using the nursing process is assessment. Three main factors for the success and the quality of these initiatives were identified: (1) involvement of the school community as a whole and addressing all the aspects of school life; (2) addressing the school social environment (relationships between pupils and staff, among pupils, among staff and between parents and schools); (3) development of children’s life skills. Furthermore, it emerged that depending on the aims of the school-based health programme, a different level of collaboration was needed varying from schools as a site to delivery of clinical service to programmes which sought to change the behavior of students and/or schools as organisations. The article brings out an important message that health promotion interventions are necessary to find out effective ways to influence to target group, as well as keep updated on the methods available. Stigma and lack of understanding about mental disorders are major barriers to seeking help and promoting better mental health. This is characterized as a whole school approach (or ‘whole of school approach’) to health and well-being; in different European countries similar terms are used such as ‘healthy schools’, ‘good and healthy schools’, but they all have a similar intention. This study emphasizes the importance of continuing, persistent reinforcing of a health promoting way of thinking and daily actions while educational demands of hectic school life are increasing. Now that your school has decided to start the Health Promoting Schools journey, you're probably wondering what you should expect and what will be expected of your school. It is of great concern that mental health promotion is frequently overlooked as an integral part of health promotion (Desjarlais et al., 1995; WHO, 2001; Lavikainen et al., 2000). They emphasize the need to use innovative methods in studying complex and dynamic settings to understand components of the school environment to ensure the implementation of the HPS approach. García-Vázquez examined the effect of the HPS programme in schools that are part of the regional SHE network on health behaviours of first-year and fourth-year secondary school students (mean age 12.5 years and 15.8 years, respectively) in Northern Spain, Asturia. The girls revealed greater gains in social awareness and greater reductions of the levels of social isolation and social anxiety when compared with boys. Health-Promoting School, health is created by students, teachers, parents, and other community members who are: • Caring for themselves and others • Making decisions about and taking control of conditions and circumstances that affect health • Creating … The goal of WHO's Global School Health Initiative is to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". These include preschools, primary, secondary and other types of schools, including vocational schools. Evidence exists to document the beneficial effects of a health promotion policy in schools, but it is also clear that effectiveness is not always attained. Engages health and education officials, teachers, teachers' unions, students, parents, health providers and community leaders in efforts to make the school a healthy place. Criterion 1 Promoting a healthy school involves the provision of a safe, secure and stimulating environment that encourages and supports pupils, staff and members of the whole school community, both in and out of school. The findings suggest that the schools have a lot of potential to act towards healthier communities, if the individuals are engaged to the processes in a sustainable way. Huber et al. An intersectoral approach is now widely recognized as a condition for all schools to make a difference for health and well-being of all pupils and of teaching and non-teaching staff by strengthening school’s capacity as a healthy place in which to live, learn and work. ... volunteers are expected to sign that they have understood the H&S School’s policy in the presence of the trainer. The results suggest that studying in a school that is a member of the regional SHE network may have some positive effect on students’ health behaviours, whereas the school’s engagement with health activities was clearly demonstrated favouring the SHE network schools. Facilitating factors were related to school leadership and generally, supportive school culture. The Health Promoting School, networks and links up with other schools in this process and may become a role model for other schools.A sense of ownership of self and the school is established and self respect in reinforced. It is assumed that when it comes to the evaluation of implementation, two options exist: (i) either the programme is delivered as planned, or not and (ii) either it delivers expected outcomes, or not. All school employees should also be aware that they are almost always being watched by students and other community members. Using health, food and education policy documents in the textual analyses Torres studied opportunities in the policy framing for a school-based critical health education in Ecuador, from a conceptual perspective combining the HPS approach with critical nutrition and political ecology. Creating conditions that are conducive to health (through policies, services, physical/social conditions). The theme related to school health policies continues in Atilola’s article, in which Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model is a framework to capture child mental health policy development in sub-Saharan Africa. Of eight schools, four were allocated to intervention schools and four to control schools. Some differences were observed; in schools implementing an HPS strategy, there were increased visual cues to support healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being and indications of a holistic approach to health. Collaboration with other relevant policy areas, for example youth, social and environmental policies and sustainable development is essential. The amount of leisure of Wroclaw adults in the context of health promotion, Associations between health-related skills and young adults’ work ability within a structural health literacy model, THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF HPS IN THE EUROPEAN REGION, DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES TOWARDS HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOLS, http://www.schools-for-health.eu/uploads/files/SHE-Factsheet_2_School%20health%20promotion_Evidence.pdf (last accessed 24 January 2017, http://www.schools-for-health.eu/uploads/files/SHE-Factsheet_1_State_of_art_Health%20Promoting%20Schools.pdf, http://www.iuhpe.org/images/PUBLICATIONS/THEMATIC/HPS/Eviden ce-Action_ENG.pdf, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/325180/Draft-Declaration-en.pdf?ua=1, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. There is strong evidence to support the Health Promoting Schools approach as a best practice framework for school health promotion. Based on this visual method, they compared the schools that were formally implementing a health promoting school approach with schools that we not. In their systematic review, the focus was to explore the students’ participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school-based health promotion measures, defined as a project, programme, intervention, or other kinds of initiative. The Ottawa Charter (WHO, 1986) states that health promotion is a process about enabling people, meaning that people can actively acquire competencies to create more control over their own health and over their environment. The intervention contained multiple stages and included many activities, and proved to be feasible. Research on health promotion in schools led to results close to those coming from other domains. An effective school health programme can be one of the most cost effective investments a nation can make to simultaneously improve education and health. Criterion 2 Promoting a healthy school encourages and promotes self-esteem and self-confidence by providing They highlight the current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to present the pathways between daily school … Strengthening national capacities: collaboration between health and education agencies is fostered, and countries are helped to develop strategies and programmes to improve health through schools. Influencing health-related behaviours: knowledge, beliefs, skills, attitudes, values, support. A collaborative work coordinated by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (St Leger et al., 2008) summarises what has been shown to work well and are prominent features of effective schools. WHO promotes school health programmes as a strategic means to prevent important health risks among youth and to engage the education sector in efforts to change the educational, social, economic and political conditions that affect risk. Change to service delivery from 1st January 2020. This special issue of HPI demonstrates the diversity in health promoting school initiatives and research. increased ownership and health-related effects), effects on school as an organization (e.g. In 2013, a survey was conducted among the national coordinators of the SHE network in Europe to gain an overview of current health promoting school policies. McNamara et colleagues emphasize that ‘if we are serious about providing opportunities to support children’s physical and mental health at school, then we cannot leave this responsibility to change’. The WHO HPS framework is only an outline. Health Promotion with Schools: a policy for the health system is one product arising from the recommended directions.It reflects better practice in working with schools to promote health,and will provide a useful foundation from which the health system can move forward in working more effectively with schools. The perspective is intersectoral since the core business of schools is focused on educational outcomes, rather than the reduction of health problems. Members of the network have indicated that their membership contributes to the national development and implementation of school health promotion. Rosas analyses system thinking and complexity in relation to health promoting school concept. Correa-Burrows and colleagues studied the association between the engagement in regular physical activity and the academic performance of school-age children. Each advocacy document makes a strong case for addressing an important health problem, identifies components of a comprehensive school health programme, and provides guidance in integrating the issue into the components. Bell and colleagues applied a school-based smoking prevention programme into obesity prevention intervention among 12–13 year olds. The health promoting school (HPS) approach was developed and introduced during the 1980s. These are: developing and maintaining a democratic and participatory school community; developing partnerships between the policy makers of the education and health sectors; ensuring students and parents feel they have some sense of ownership in the life of the school; implementing a diversity of learning and teaching strategies; providing adequate time for class-based activities, organisation and coordination, and out of class activities; exploring health issues within the context of the students’ lives and community; utilising strategies that adopt a whole school approach rather than primarily a classroom learning approach; providing ongoing capacity-building opportunities for teachers and associated staff; creating an excellent social environment which fosters open and honest relationships within the school community; ensuring a consistency of approach across the school and between the school, home and wider community; developing both a sense of direction in the goals of the school and clear and unambiguous leadership and administrative support; providing resources that complement the fundamental role of the teacher and which are of a sound theoretical and accurate factual base; creating a climate where there are high expectations of students in their social interactions and educational attainments. 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Of which the most conclusive evidence included personal effects on school attendance an advocacy document for purpose... Results truly encourage the inclusion of students, school personnel, families and other staff, and commitments... Systems was created on strong interpersonal professional relationships and effective communication, 34 000 schools were also.!
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