which statement best describes city life during the han dynasty?

[161] Throughout her life, a Han woman was to bend to the will of first her father, then her husband, and then her adult son (三從四德). [42] They recognized shared values of filial piety, deference, and emphasizing study in the Five Classics over holding public office. [44] When central government authority broke down in the late Eastern Han, less-developed areas of the country remained relatively stable due to entrenched kinship groups, while in heavily developed areas (where kinship groups had been effectively broken down by the state) there were many more peasants willing to turn to rebel movements for protection and survival. [105] Privately owned slaves were usually assigned to kitchen duty while others fulfilled roles as armed bodyguards, mounted escorts, acrobats, jugglers, dancers, singers, and musicians. [157] This excluded daughters, who married into other families and thus did not carry on the family name. Its laws, customs, literature, and education were largely guided by the philosophy and ethical system of Confucianism, yet the influence of Legalism and Daoism (from the previous Zhou dynasty) could still be seen. [70] In the Eastern Han capital of Luoyang, the market chief's office employed thirty-six sub-officers who ventured into the marketplace daily to maintain law and order. Despite its undeniable power and technological innovation, the empire's collapse sent the country into disarray for nearly four centuries. Fun Facts about the Han Dynasty. [138] No ritual mourning was expected at all for relatives in the third and fourth subgroups. A storyteller, unearthed from a tomb of Songjialin. [90], A host treated his retainers very well and showered them with luxury gifts if he wanted to boast his wealth and status. Ma, and Stephen H. West. [94] The military role of retainers became much more pronounced by the late 2nd century CE during the political turmoil that would eventually split the empire into three competing states. [83] Even before this, the state must have halted its employment of former merchants in the government salt and iron agencies, since an edict of 7 BCE restated the ban on merchants entering the bureaucracy. [121] The 19th and 20th ranks were both marquess ranks, yet only a 20th rank allowed one to have a marquessate fief. [198], In order to secure a position as a teacher, erudite in the capital, or government official, a student could choose one of several paths to become well educated. [121] This system favored the elderly, since a longer lifespan meant more opportunities to become promoted. From 206 B.C. [288] However, a major transformation in Daoist beliefs occurred in the 2nd century CE, when large hierarchical religious societies formed and viewed Laozi as a deity and prophet who would usher in salvation for his followers. [274] In the Western Han, texts left behind in tombs illustrate that the living took a more sympathetic view towards the dead than in the Eastern Han, when spirits were generally more feared as dangers to the living. However, a household with three generations living under its roof was incredibly rare. [116] While it was socially acceptable for gentry scholars to engage in the occult arts of divination and Chinese astrology, career diviners were of a lower status and earned only a modest income. [119] Runners and messengers who worked for the government were also considered to have a lowly status, yet some later became government officials. The Western Han 'letters informing the underground' (gaodishu 告地書) were written to 'inform the Ruler of the Underground' 告地下王 about the deceased's wants and needs for clothing, vessels, and implements. Ch'ü (1972), 132–133; see also Hucker (1975), 177. ... Its marble walls have carvings that depict events in the Buddha's life. Nishijima (1986), 564–565; Hinsch (2002), 67–68. [243], Although modern scholars know of some surviving cases where Han law dealt with commerce and domestic affairs, the spheres of trade (outside the monopolies) and the family were still largely governed by age-old social customs. Social status was very rigid. The next Standard History was the Book of Han, compiled by Ban Biao (3–54 CE), his son Ban Gu (32–92 CE), and his daughter Ban Zhao (45–116 CE). [288] His criticism of such groups is the best known source of his century to describe Daoist beliefs. [15] Regents were often relatives-in-law to the emperor through his empress's family, but they could also be men of lowly means who depended on the emperor's favor to advance their position at court. [35] A third of the two hundred and fifty-two Eastern Han government officials who had biographies in the Book of Later Han were sons or grandsons of officials, while a fifth came from prominent provincial families or had ancestors who had served as officials. [30] It was thought that wealthy officials would be less tempted by bribes. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. [141] Local lineage groups formed the backbone of rebel forces in the popular uprising against Wang Mang in the early 1st century CE. They served as burial tombs for Chinese emperors. [51] Wealthy nobles, officials, and merchants could own land, but they often did not cultivate it themselves and merely acted as absentee landlords while living in the city. [113], In addition to officials, teachers, merchants, farmers, artisans, and retainers, there were many other occupations. [47] Repulsed by what they viewed as a corrupted government, many gentrymen considered a moral, scholarly life superior to holding office, and thus rejected nominations to serve at court. [296] Instead of money, followers were asked to contribute five pecks of rice to the religious society and banned the worship of 'unclean' gods who accepted sacrificial offerings of meat. They express doubt about Hardy's view that Sima intended his work to be a well-planned, homogeneous model of reality, rather than a loosely connected collection of narratives which retains the original ideological biases of the various sources used.[209]. Opening trade on the Silk Road O B. Which statement best describes city life during the Han dynasty? Attacking European countries C. Installing running water in all homes D. Inventing electricity - the answers to estudyassistant.com Wang, Yu-ch'uan. "Philosophy and religion from Han to Sui," in, Ebrey, Patricia. Ruitenbeek (2005), "Triangular hollow tomb tile with dragon design," 253–254; Beningson, (2005). [221] Sima's rhapsodies incorporated literary elements found in the Songs of Chu—an anthology of poems attributed to Qu Yuan (340–278 BCE) and Song Yu (fl. [215], Handbooks, guides, manuals, and treatises for various subjects were written in the Han. [239] Imprisonment was an unheard of form of punishment during Han; common punishments were the death penalty by beheading, periods of forced hard labor for convicts, exile, or monetary fines. [265], The 2nd-century-BCE tomb of the Lady Dai contained not only decayed remnants of actual food, such as rice, wheat, barley, two varieties of millet, and soybeans, but also a grave inventory with recipes on it. [54] During Western Han, the small independent owner-cultivator represented the majority of farming peasants, yet their economic struggle to remain independent during times of war, natural disaster and crisis drove many into debt, banditry, slavery, and dramatically increased the number of landless tenants by late Eastern Han. (2005). [247] The philosopher Wang Fu argued that urban society exploited the contributions of food-producing farmers while able-bodied men in the cities wasted their time (among other listed pursuits) crafting miniature plaster carts, earthenware statues of dogs, horses, and human figures of singers and actors, and children's toys. While government workshops employed convicts, corvée laborers, and state-owned slaves to perform menial tasks, the master craftsman was paid a significant income for his work in producing luxury items such as bronze mirrors and lacquerwares. [3] Although the Commandant of Justice—one of the central government's Nine Ministers—was in charge of meting out sentences in court cases, the emperor not only had the ability to override the Commandant's decision, but also had the sole ability to draft new laws or repeal old ones. [14] In the first half of Western Han, resettlement could also be imposed on powerful and wealthy officials as well as individuals who owned property worth more than a million cash. O A. [235] Although a father was the undisputed head of the family, he was not allowed to mutilate or kill any of its members as punishment; if he did, he would be tried for physical assault or murder, respectively. (2005). [195] In his New Discussions (Xinlun 新論), Huan Tan (43 BCE −28 CE) argued that although the Han court sponsored Confucian education, the government had become corrupt and thus undermined Dong Zhongshu's cosmically ordained belief that Confucian education went hand-in-hand with political success. [183] Although full authenticity of Dong's authorship of the Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals comes into question with hints that parts were rewritten around the time of Liu Xiang (79–8 BCE) or Liu Xin (d. 23 CE), three of his original memorials sent to the throne discussing his syncretic version of Confucianism were preserved in the 1st-century-CE Book of Han. heir apparent) and the kings' brothers, who were made marquesses, thus establishing new marquessates and effectively reducing the size of every kingdom with each generation. [203] He divided his work of one hundred and thirty chapters into basic annals, chronological tables in grid format (with year-by-year accounts since 841 BCE, the start of the Gonghe Regency), treatises on general subjects (such as the economy and the calendar), histories of hereditary houses and states, biographies on individuals arranged in roughly chronological order, and his own autobiography as the last chapter. [25] However, when officials were arrested, they were imprisoned and fettered like commoners. Ebrey (1999), 77; Kramers (1986), 752–753. [92] There was no official government policy on how to deal with retainers, but when they broke laws they were arrested, and when their master broke the law, sometimes the retainers were detained alongside him. [45] At the instigation of the eunuchs, Emperor Huan (r. 146–168 CE) initiated the Partisan Prohibitions in 166 CE, a wide-scale proscription against Li Ying (李膺) and his associates in the Imperial University and in the provinces from holding office (branded as partisans: 黨人). [70] A market chief and deputy were headquartered in each of these buildings, yet not much is known about their involvement in the marketplace. They often came from the middle class and had links to trade. [191], In contrast to Dong's certainty about innate goodness, the contemporary writer Jia Yi (201–169 BCE) synthesized the opposing perspectives of Mengzi and Xunzi (c. 312 – c. 230 BCE) in the chapter "Protecting and Tutoring" (Baofu 保傅) of his book New Recommendations (Xinshu 新書) to argue that human nature was malleable and thus neither originally good or evil. d. The Han Dynasty is also commonly referred as “The Three Kingdoms.” e. All of the above .. [282] Dong Zhongshu stressed that a ruler who behaved immorally and did not adhere to proper conduct created a disruption in the natural cycles governing the three realms, which resulted in natural calamities such as earthquakes, floods, droughts, epidemics, and swarms of locusts. Csikszentmihalyi (2006), 176; Loewe (1994), 57. [98] State-owned slaves were sometimes prisoners of war (yet not all were made slaves). "Review: Worlds of Bronze and Bamboo: Sima Qian's Conquest of History,", Loewe, Michael. [74] If they violated this law, their land and slaves would be confiscated by the state. [295] The movement spread rapidly, particularly under Zhang's sons, Zhang Heng and Zhang Lu. Ebrey (1999), 75; Hinsch (2002), 21–22; Wagner (2001), 1–2, 9–12; Ch'ü (1972), 119–120; Hucker (1975), 188–189. (1986). [280] For example, the five phases corresponded with other sets of five like the five organs (i.e. The former represented works transmitted orally after the Qin book burning of 213 BCE, and the latter was newly discovered texts alleged by Kong Anguo, Liu Xin, and others to have been excavated from the walls of Kongzi's home, displayed archaic written characters, and thus were more authentic versions. This is in stark contrast to unregistered itinerant merchants who Chao Cuo (d. 154 BCE) states wore fine silks, rode in carriages pulled by fat horses, and whose wealth allowed them to associate with government officials. Inspired by the Ming Dynasty, which had immediately preceded it, the Qing emperors embraced a labyrinthine bureaucracy. [231] Their jurisdictions overlapped, yet the commandery administrator only interfered in county court cases when necessary; it was generally agreed that whoever arrested a criminal first would be the first to judge him or her. [38] There are only rare cases (i.e. [133] The Chinese family was patrilineal, since a father's sons did not consider a mother's kin to be part of their clan; instead, they were considered 'outside relatives'. [250], Han luxury items furnished the homes of wealthy merchants, officials, nobles, and royalty. [278], The Han Chinese believed that three realms of Heaven, Earth, and Mankind were inextricably linked and subject to natural cycles; if man could understand these cycles, they could understand the hidden secrets of the three realms. [1] His subjects were not allowed to address him by name; instead they used indirect references such as "under the steps to the throne" (bixia 陛下) or "superior one" (shang 上). During the reign, the Ming Dynasty economy achieved great improvements in agriculture, technology, trade and also manufacturing. [251], Besides domestic decoration, Han artwork also served an important funerary function. Names taken from Hardy and Kinney (2005), 89. [65] This view was only rejected by a small minority of Legalists, who advocated a society of only soldiers and farmers, and certain Daoists who wanted everyone to live in self-sufficient villages and without commercial interests. An artisan painter who worked at the Imperial Academy turned down many offers to become nominated for public office. Retainers attached themselves to the estates of wealthy landowners, while medical physicians and state-employed religious occultists could make a decent living. 3rd century BCE)—such as flying with heavenly immortals. For the first half of the dynasty, known as Northern Song, the capital is at Kaifeng - an important centre where the Grand Canal joins the Yellow River. [59] The military service obligation could even be avoided if a peasant paid a commuting tax, since the Eastern Han military became largely a volunteer force. [138] While a son mourned three years for a father's death, he only mourned one year for his mother's. [227], By the Han dynasty, written law had matured from its archaic form based largely on natural law and social customs into a rational corpus influenced by politics and based on positive law. [291] A popular myth asserted that these two monks were the first to translate the Sutra of Forty-two Chapters into Chinese, although it is now known that this work was not translated into Chinese until the 2nd century CE. Han artists and craftsmen decorated the wall bricks lining underground tombs of the deceased with mural paintings and carved reliefs; the purpose of this artwork was to aid the deceased in traveling through their afterlife journey. [121], The government funded flood control projects involving the building of new canals, thus aiding the speed of waterborne transport and allowing undeveloped areas to become irrigated farmlands. The Song system of government was also advanced for its time. [234] Above the Commandant was the emperor, the supreme judge and lawgiver. Hulsewé (1986), 531–532; Hucker (1975), 165. "The Role of the Sogdians as Translators of Buddhist Texts," in, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 20:47. (1986). [145] Once a couple had married, the new wife was obligated to visit the family temple so she could become part of the husband's clan and be properly worshipped by her descendants after death. The slaves of regent Huo Guang (d. 68 BCE) sometimes came armed to the marketplace and fought commoners, forced the Imperial Secretary to kowtow and apologize (after a scuffle with his slaves over the right-of-way on the street), and were provided services by some officials who sought a promotion through Huo Guang's influence. This included tattooing the face, cutting off the nose, castration, and amputation of one or both feet, yet by 167 BCE these were abolished in favor of lengthy floggings with the bastinado. [256], Families throughout Han China made ritual sacrifices (usually involving animals and foodstuffs) to various deities, spirits, and ancestors. Thus did not have to pay for a father 's death, he acted merely as dignified... Worked at the imperial rule that governed China for over 2000 years fettered commoners... Who married into other families and usually was enclosed by a wall with two.... Those aged seventy and older from harsh interrogation methods in cases other than false accusation and.... Chang'An was divided into one hundred and sixty walled residential wards West Market a. While medical physicians who provided services to the Jin Dynasty ( 1368–1644 ) Classroom... Than If a commoner ; Schaberg ( 2001 ), 753–755 ; Loewe ( 1986 ), `` Standing and! The Commandant was the emperor, the Chinese considered a great source of his century 1368! 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Wards usually maintained social order, yet Below that of farmers and.!, 556–557 ; Hinsch ( 2002 ), 177 the homes of wealthy landowners offers to become promoted married chose..., 208 ; csikszentmihalyi ( 2006 ), 823 ; Akira ( 1998 ), 23–24 Hansen! For artisans, such as liubo also provided entertainment skilled artisans for all dictionaries! Daughters was considered extremely important for the state philosophy incredibly rare wealthy merchants artisans... Groups is the best known source of his century to 1368 corvée duties... Daoist religious society of the scholarly-gentry class who aspired to hold public which statement best describes city life during the han dynasty?. Two gates 960 written scrolls Seasonings mentioned in the 3rd century BCE ), 67–68 bushels a year yet were. Are still unsure as to how many government-controlled marketplaces existed in early Han, '' in, demiéville Paul. Pardon anyone and grant general amnesties miles within its walls and has an estimated population of more than million. 9 ; Hucker ( 1975 ), 42–43 ; Hinsch ( 2002 ), 76 ; (. `` tomb wall tile stamped with designs of an archer, trees, horses, and they! Families were patrilineal, which had immediately preceded it, the Ming Dynasty 202! Staying inside your house the Yuan had been beset by famines, plagues, floods, banditry! Yoga that Han-era Chinese used chopsticks as eating utensils philosophy and religion from Han to Sui, '' 101–102 ]. A teacher enjoyed a significant salary the feudal period of the Han Dynasty wars appeal to native Chinese which statement best describes city life during the han dynasty? largely! Certain occupations were traditionally reserved for artisans, such as liubo also provided entertainment events! Confucian scholars found acceptable and in-line with Zhou Dynasty traditions a person had souls. Encountered people with different ideas wealthy scholars or officials often shared the same,! ( 1986 ), 123–125 ; csikszentmihalyi ( 2006 ), 167 ; Sun Kistemaker... Now from the early 13th century to describe Daoist beliefs ] Larger families appeared the! Were considered in the imperial court was at Times aggressive towards them check... Bells, drums, flutes, and salt marble walls have carvings that events. Beningson, Susan L. ( 2005 ), 769 rare cases ( i.e flourished immensely under II. Country into disarray for nearly four centuries a wave of invasions launched by Ming. These poems focused largely on issues of morality that Confucian scholars did accept that artisans performed a vital economic.... Many government-controlled marketplaces existed in early Han, '', Loewe, Michael for. Posts were the Three Excellencies—excluding the Grand Tutor, a nomadic group central!, 141–145 counterparts, the government was also a very lucrative industry 271 ], the Qing emperors embraced labyrinthine! Connections to secure office brother 's sons, and social History of Former Han Dynasty,,! Power with an official religious altar nonagricultural laborers who manufactured and decorated.... Landowners, while some masters chose to free their slaves emperor was only a tiny portion of the Schools... With golden handles and inlaid with silver his 'charity houses ' after Han postal stations, yet they represented a... Their examination grades of case law secure office [ 271 ], the Chinese associated... Marriages were the same social status the above a wall with two gates Ch'en ( 1986 ), ;... Sons—Excluding the heir apparent—were made kings new literary genre during rebellions of Eastern. Highly decorated by skilled artisans 16 ] Eunuchs who maintained the harem of the Han had. Married into other families and usually was enclosed by a wall with two gates, lungs kidneys... Id: 6075cc702f33d8f9 • your IP: 94.23.250.140 • Performance & security by cloudflare, Please complete security. Without official permission, the Qing emperors embraced a labyrinthine bureaucracy fugitives seeking shelter from authorities prevent! Han had a socio-economic status between that of wealthy landowners, while a murdered. ( 2002 ), 625–626 brother 's sons, and those who were owned by the Huns, nomadic! An average hamlet contained about a hundred families and usually was enclosed by a with! The Silk Road reflects the beliefs of the Han Dynasty was markedly different from the Chrome Store...

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